Developed as a joint project with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), and in collaboration with the American Heart Association (AHA) and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS), a diverse panel of experts in pacemaker and defibrillator management focused on medical procedures that might interfere with Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs) function.
This document provides an expert consensus on the management of patients with CIEDs during and after surgical or medical procedures. Each of the authors is an expert in the management of CIEDs in the setting of medical procedures that might interfere with their function, and the statement represents the consensus of the writing committee based on a review of the literature, their own experience in treating patients, and input from a reference group.
In generating its consensus, the committee reviewed a large body of literature that consists mainly of case reports and small series of cases. There are no randomized controlled trials and very few case series upon which to rely; therefore, many of the recommendations are based on the extensive experience of the writing group.