Search

February 28, 2013 — This document was developed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) along with key specialty societies. The document provides assessed levels of appropriateness for implanting ICDs and CRTs in 369 real-life case scenarios, with the goal of enhancing physician and patient decision making and improving care and health outcomes.

The provision of services accompanying technology-based electrophysiological-related interventions created an opportunity for health care professionals to specialize in the field of cardiac rhythm management.Known as Allied Professionals (APs), this diverse group of nurses, physician assistants, technologists, technicians, and engineers is dedicated to promoting excellence in the care of patients with cardiac rhythm disorders.

An update to this document was published in 2017 and is available at this link.  

May 13, 2009 — An international team of device and lead management experts from North America and Europe wrote this 2009 consensus document on the management of leads in patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Central to this effort was a focus on transvenous lead extraction, including standards for training and for the evaluation of new tools and techniques.

June 2002 — Based on the Consensus Conference held during the 21st Annual Scientific Sessions of the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (NASPE; now known as Heart Rhythm Society), this consensus statement covers issues of specific cardiac arrhythmias in children with or without congenital heart disease (CHD), the special needs of children and patients with CHD, and how best to meet these needs.

May 2012 — The expert consensus statement provides first-of-its-kind clinical practice guidelines on the evaluation and management of asymptomatic young patients with a WPW electrocardiographic pattern. This is also the first collaboration between the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS).

May 14, 2008 — This clinical document details the training for ICD/CRT implants in patients who are either in the pediatric age range (birth–18 years of age) with or without congenital heart disease or adults with congenital heart disease. The health care team involved in the care of these patients should have knowledge and expertise about the implantation indications, implantation techniques, complications, programming, and follow-up for these devices, as well as the nontechnical treatment issues relevant to children.

This document has been retired and replaced by 2013 "Recommendations for Advanced Fellowship Training in Clinical Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology."

November 2008 —This policy update revises the recommendations from the original statement published under the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (NASPE) in 2001. The current recommendations include revisions to criteria on billing and collection, assistance that should or should not be performed, and the proper supervision necessary.

2005 — This publication covers mechanisms and consequences of mechanical and electrical remodeling in heart failure (HF), controlled trials of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) alone or combined with implantable cardioverter defibrillator, and expanded indications for electrical heart failure devices.

This document has been retired because it is no longer current.

May 5, 2011 — Developed as a joint project with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), and in collaboration with the American Heart Association (AHA) and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS), a diverse panel of experts in pacemaker and defibrillator management focused on medical procedures that might interfere with Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs) function.

March 28, 2014 - A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society; developed in collaboration with the Society of Thoracic Surgeons.  The goal of this guideline is to establish revised guidelines for optimum management of atrial fibrillation. This guideline supersedes the "2006 ACC/AHA/ESC Guideline for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation" and the two subsequent focused updates from 2011.

May 8, 2014 - This expert consensus statement was written by experts and developed in collaboration with and endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), the American Heart Association (AHA), and the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES).  Endorsed by Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), European Heart Rhythm Society (EHRA), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulacion Cardiaca y Electrofisiologia (SOLAECE)-Latin American Society of Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology.

May 9, 2014 - This international expert consensus statement was written by experts in the field who were chosen by the Heart Rhythm Society in collaboration with representatives from the American College of Cardiology, American College of Chest Physicians, American Heart Association, Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society, European Hear Rhythm Association, and World Association for Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders (WASOG).

May 9, 2014 - This expert consensus statement was written by experts and developed in partnership with and endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Heart Association (AHA); and in collaboration with and endorsed by the Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS).  Endorsed by the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS) and the Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulacion Cardiaca y Electrofisiologia (SOLAECE)-Latin American Society of Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology.

August 30, 2014-This international consensus statement of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), and Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society is intended to provide clinical guidance for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). It summarizes the consensus of the international writing group members and is based on a systematic review of the medical literature regarding Ventricular Arrhythmias.

May 8, 2014 - This expert consensus statement was developed in partnership between the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and endorsed by the governing bodies of PACES, HRS, the American College of Cardiology (ACC), the American Heart Association (AHA), the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), the Canadian Heart Rhythm Society (CHRS), and the International Society for Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ISACHD).

May 8, 2014 - This expert consensus statement was developed in partnership between the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and endorsed by the governing bodies of PACES, HRS, and the American College of Cardiology (ACC). Endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) (which uses a different classification of evidence).

June 26, 2012 — The statement is the first of its kind to specifically address pacemaker device and mode selection, expanding upon the ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities.

The new statement provides a state-of-the-art review of the field and reports consensus recommendations on pacemaker device and mode selection. It is a guide to facilitate the appropriate use of single vs. dual-chamber devices for patients who already meet guidelines for pacemaker implantation.

This document has been retired and replaced by the 2017 publication available at this link.

March 2012 — The purpose of the 2012 Consensus Statement is to provide a state-of-the-art review of the field of catheter and surgical ablation of AFib. It reports  on the findings of a Task Force, convened by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), and the European Cardiac Arrhythmia Society (ECAS) and charged with defining the indications, techniques, and outcomes of this procedure.

February 14, 2011 — This guideline update, states that dabigatran, a new antithrombotic agent that was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, is an alternative to warfarin to help prevent dangerous blood clots in patients with atrial fibrillation. The update is a joint publication of the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), the American Heart Association (AHA), and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS). 

This document has been retired and replaced by "2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation."

This document was developed in partnership with the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), a registered branch of the European Society of Cardiology, and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS); and in collaboration with the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), the American Heart Association (AHA), the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) and the Association for European Pediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC).

March 20, 2006 — Following the recall event in 2005, the Guidant Corporation commissioned an independent panel charged with studying, analyzing, and evaluating the policies and procedure of the Cardiac Rhythm Management (CRM) business with regard to post-market device surveillance. This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the panel.

August 31, 2010 — A new study on overall workforce trends in the field of cardiac electrophysiology (EP) reveals an increasing demand for EP professionals resulting from shifting demographic trends, evolving health reform policies, and improved procedural outcomes. The study, commissioned in 2009 by the Heart Rhythm Society, provides data from nearly 700 respondents, including EPs, allied professionals, and basic scientists currently working within the field of cardiac electrophysiology. It found substantial growth in the overall volume and complexity of cardiac procedures performed in the past decade.

March 2007 — Part I - This statement examines the relation of the resting ECG to its technology. Its purpose is to foster understanding of how the modern ECG is derived and displayed and to establish standards that will improve the accuracy and usefulness of the ECG in practice.  Part II -This statement provides a concise list of diagnostic terms for ECG interpretation that can be shared by students, teachers, and readers of electrocardiography.

September 21, 2010 – This statement is the result of a collaborative effort with interventional cardiologists and electrophysiology members from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS). The document outlines and recommends standards for medical practitioners to use when performing and broadcasting live cardiovascular case demonstrations at medical meetings.

September, 2002 — Summary Article from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/NASPE Committee on Pacemaker Implantation) (updating 1998 pacemaker guidelines).

This document has been retired and replaced by "ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 Guidelines for Device-Based Therapy of Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities"  and subsequently by "2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACCF/AHA/HRS 2008 Guidelines for Device-Based Therapy of Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities."

February 2002 – This Statement gives the revised NBG code, endorsed by  British Pacing and Electrophysiology Group (BPEC) and the North American Society for Pacing and Electrophysiology (NASPE, now known as Heart Rhythm Society) in 2001. This statement is more compatible with contemporary and emerging pacing technology with particular attention to the issue of multisite pacing.

May 14, 2009 — This Consensus Statement provides a state-of-the-art review on catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT). It reports on the findings of a Task Force representing the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) charged with defining the indications, techniques, and outcomes of this procedure.

April 2003 — This consensus statement provides a simple way to characterize an episode of Atrial Fibrillation. It is the result of a collaborative project of the Working Group on Arrhythmias and the Working Group of Cardiac Pacing of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, now known as Heart Rhythm Society.

April 30, 2013 — The report expands upon guidelines published in 2005 and a supplemental consensus statement issued by the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) in 2008.  The report provides an overview of training, didactic curriculum and research experience, clinical experience, and credentialing/certification. 

February 2009 — This document is a consensus statement by the major American societies of physicians who work in a laboratory environment and reviews available data on the prevalence of occupational health risks and summarizes ongoing epidemiologic studies designed to further elucidate these risks.

May 13, 2015 - The current document is developed from the foundations established by the 2008 HRS Consensus Statement as well as the 2012 International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiography and European Heart Rhythm Association’s Expert Consensus Statement on Remote Monitoring of CIEDs.  The goals of follow-up, definition of hardware, and personnel remain the same and will not be covered in this document except where evolution of remote technologies and responsibilities has occurred. The current document provides new recommendations based on data published since 2008, endorsing the need to maintain consistent follow-up, and outlining the limitations of strictly in-person methods.

The topic covered by this document includes the monitoring of CIEDs with a description of the technology, indications for use, personnel involved in monitoring and the frequency and types of monitoring events. Also covered are issues in regard to data management, regulatory environments, reimbursement and ethical considerations in respect to device inactivation.

This document has been retired and replaced by 2015 "HRS Expert Consensus Statement on Remote Interrogation and Monitoring for Cardiovascular Electronic Implantable Devices."

May 14, 2010 - This document was developed in collaboration with and endorsed by the American College of Cardiology (ACC), the American Geriatrics Society (AGS), the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (AAHPM); the American Heart Association (AHA), the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), and the Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association (HPNA). It focuses on patients nearing the end of life and addresses patients who have made a decision for CIED deactivation at other times, as well as the rights and responsibilities of clinicians (and others, such as industry-employed allied professionals) who may not wish to perform deactivation.

November 18, 2014 - The Heart Rhythm Society convened a research symposium on December 9–10, 2013, in Washington, DC, that focused on the prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) as well as AF-related stroke and morbidity.Attendees sought to summarize advances in understanding AF since a 2008 National Institutes of Health(NIH) conference on this topic and to identify continued knowledge gaps and current research priorities.  This resultant whitepaper was developed in collaboration with and endorsed by the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the Canadian Heart Rhythm Society (CHRS). It summarizes the deliberations of the attendees in an effort to accelerate progress toward preventing AF and its consequences.

September 29, 2014 - This document is a report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Pediatric Echocardiography.The purpose is to establish and evaluate Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for the initial use of outpatient pediatric echocardiography.

April 26, 2011 - On October 18, 2010, HRS convened the Relationships with Industry Task Force to consider whether it should continue to collaborate with industry, why collaboration may be important, and to set parameters around industry collaboration. The Task Force concluded that collaboration with industry on research and innovation is required to achieve HRS’s mission. Nevertheless, because the potential for actual or perceived bias or conflict of interest does exist, it is necessary to establish strict ethical standards to protect the credibility of HRS and its members.

August 15, 2016 - IHE is an initiative undertaken by healthcare professionals and industry to facilitate and strengthen the sharing of clinical data among health information technology (IT) systems. Systems developed in accordance with IHE communicate with one another more readily and completely, are easier to implement, and enable care providers to use information more effectively. 

July 2016 - Ventricular cardiomyopathies have been well classified; however, a definition and detailed analysis of ‘atrial cardiomyopathy’ is lacking from the literature. The purpose of the present consensus report was to define atrial cardiomyopathy, to review the relevant literature, and to consider the impact of atrial cardiomyopathies on arrhythmia management and stroke.

June 29, 2015 - The American College of Cardiology (ACC), the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) have collaborated in writing this overview as the first of a series of documents to address issues critical to the appropriate integration of new technologies into the care of patients with AF. 

September 18, 2015 - This Advanced Training Statement addresses the added competencies required of subsubspecialists in CCEP for diagnosis and management of patients with cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances at a high level of skill. It is intended to complement the basic training in cardiac electrophysiology (EP) required of all trainees during the standard 3-year cardiovascular fellowship.

May 12, 2017 — The 2017 Expert Consensus Statement on Catheter and Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation represents a complete rewrite of the 2012 HRS/EHRA/ECAS Expert Consensus Statement. This document provides updated definitions, mechanisms, and rationale for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation and consensus recommendations concerning indications, strategies, techniques, and endpoints, technology and tools, and follow-up considerations for AF ablation. The document also provides definitions to be used in clinical trials and recommendations that will impact clinical trial design. The document was developed in joint partnership with EHRA, ECAS, APHRS, and SOLAECE. Collaborators on the document include STS, ACC, AHA, CHRS, JHRS, and SOBRAC. 

This document features a clinician summary  (an educational derivative product of the full document), a slide set  (an educational tool for electrophysiologists, cardiologists, and other licensed health care practitioners), an Executive Summary,  and an interview with Hugh Calkins, MD, FHRS, by HeartRhythm Online Editor Daniel P. Morin, MD, MPH, FHRS. 

The Catheter and Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation pocket card, a valuable educational reference tool created in partnership with Guideline Central, is available across multiple platforms, including print, electronic media, and the Guideline Central mobile app. Visit www.guidelinecentral.com  to access the pocket card.

May 11, 2017 — The 2017 HRS Expert Consensus Statement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Radiation Exposure in Patients with Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices presents recommendations intended to help health care providers of various backgrounds involved in the care of adult and pediatric patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) who are to undergo magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and/or radiation treatment. The document also addresses the safety of employees with CIEDs who may come into an MRI environment.

This document features a clinician summary  — an educational derivative product of the full document.

The MRI and Radiation Exposure in Patients with CIEDs pocket card, a valuable educational reference tool created in partnership with Guideline Central, is available across multiple platforms, including print, electronic media, and the Guideline Central mobile app. Visit www.guidelinecentral.com to access the pocket card. 

May 8, 2017 — Ambulatory ECG (AECG) is commonly used in a variety of clinical contexts to detect cardiac arrhythmias and/or arrhythmia patterns that are not readily obtained from the standard ECG. Accurate and timely characterization of arrhythmias is crucial to direct therapies that can have an important impact on diagnosis, prognosis, or patient symptom status. The rhythm information derived from the large variety of AECG recording systems can often lead to appropriate and patient-specific medical and interventional management. This document provides background and framework from which to apply AECG techniques in clinical practice, as well as clinical research.

September 19, 2016 - Drug therapy with beta blockers represents the therapeutic mainstay for both LQTS and CPVT. Our goal is to help clinicians understand the importance of beta blocker therapy in these two genetic disorders, as well as to provide clinical guidance on the choice of agents. Nadolol, when available, has been the preferred beta blocker utilized by the largest LQTS/CPVT specialty centers throughout the world for the past 25 years.

October 2006 — Developed in collaboration With the Heart Rhythm Society, this competence statement was designed to assist in the assessment of physicians' competence on a procedure-specific basis. The update specifies the minimum education, training, experience, and cognitive and technical skills necessary for the competent performance of invasive cardiac electrophysiology, catheter ablation, and cardioversion.

May 5, 2011 (Updated August 1, 2011) – Genetic testing is increasingly important in determining potential cardiac conditions in patients and is used in clinical settings more than ever before. To ensure that physicians have up-to-date knowledge of the evolving role of genetic testing for sudden death predisposing, genetic heart diseases in cardiology, which can be life-saving for some patients, the Heart Rhythm Society and the European Heart Rhythm Association have prepared HRS/EHRA Expert Consensus Statement on the State of Genetic Testing for the Channelopathies and Cardiomyopathies. The consensus statement was released at Heart Rhythm 2011, the Heart Rhythm Society’s 32nd Annual Scientific Sessions.

December 10, 2015 - The evolution of LAA occlusion technology has spanned nearly two decades and three FDA panel hearings, leading to FDA approval in 2015. As this technology becomes clinically available to a broader population of patients, it is essential that physician stakeholders establish criteria for the performance of these procedures that will be used in granting initial and ongoing privileges. These criteria are offered to support The Joint Commission mandate that medical staff privileges be granted on the basis of professional criteria specified in the medical staff bylaws to ensure safe and effective patient-centered care.

November 19, 2015 - The benefits and risks of ICD therapy for patients are directly impacted by the programming and surgical decisions made by the clinician. This expert consensus statement systemically describes four important clinical issues and addresses programming of: bradycardia mode and rate, tachycardia detection, tachycardia therapy, and intraprocedural testing of defibrillation efficacy.

February 1, 2015 - The Heart Rhythm Society convened a forum of stakeholders in medical device innovation in conjunction with the 2015 Heart Rhythm Society Annual Scientific Sessions. The forum facilitated open discussion on medical device innovation, including obstacles to physician involvement and possible solutions. This report is based on the themes that emerged.

August 15, 2006 — A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines

This document has been retired and replaced by "2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation."

September 5, 2006 — The guidelines, jointly created by the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology has been endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society Board of Trustees, is giving you an update and combining the previously published recommendations regarding the management of patients with Ventricular arrhythmias into one source.

December 19, 2007 — These guidelines are intended for physicians and nonphysician caregivers who are involved in the preoperative, operative, and postoperative care of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. They provide a framework for considering cardiac risk of noncardiac surgery in a variety of patient and surgical situations.

This document has been retired and replaced by "2009 ACCF/AHA Focused Update on Perioperative Beta Blockade."

February 2008 — This document is the result of a close collaboration between the American College of Cardiology's Adult Cardiovascular Medicine Core Cardiology Training (COCATS) Task Force 6 and the Heart Rhythm Society. This Task Force 6 Report is 1 of 13 COCATS 3 Task Force Reports, which encompass training recommendations for the fellowship programs in adult cardiovascular medicine.

October 24, 2004 — The report, written by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force has been endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society in 2004. It provides a synthesis and analysis of expert opinion on the perioperative management of patients with pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs).

June 6, 2006 — This update was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology.

September 14, 2004 — The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Syncope of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). The purpose of this document is to provide specific recommendations on the diagnostic evaluation and management of syncope.

This document has been retired and replaced by "Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Syncope (Version 2009)."

September 14, 2017 — The 2017 HRS Expert Consensus Statement on Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Lead Management and Extraction, developed in collaboration with the ACC, AHA, APHRS, ASA, EHRA, IDSA, LAHRS, PACES, and STS, is intended to help clinicians in their decision-making process for managing leads and builds on the 2009 Transvenous Lead Extraction: Heart Rhythm Society Expert Consensus on Facilities, Training, Indications, and Patient Management document. It provides practical clinical guidance in the broad field of lead management, including lead extraction.

The document features a clinician summary  (an educational derivative product of the full document) and a pocket card, developed in partnership with Guideline Central and available across multiple platforms, including print, electronic media, and the Guideline Central mobile app. Visit www.guidelinecentral.com  to access the pocket card.

The 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death, accompanied by the Executive Summary and the Systematic Review, is intended to guide management of adults who have ventricular arrhythmias or who are at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD), including diseases and syndromes associated with a risk of SCD from ventricular arrhythmias. 

August 25, 2014 - This document on the Management of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary or valve interventions is a joint consensus document of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and European Association of Acute Cardiac Care (ACCA) endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS).

The Heart Rhythm Society endorsed the document on 11 July 2017

The purpose of this document as an adjunct to the EHRA practical guide, issued in 2014 on ways to reduce radiation dose for patients and staff during electrophysiological procedures, is to describe the current knowledge on the risks and to inform about current international recommendations and legislation on occupational exposure in the electrophysiology laboratory to personnel with childbearing potential and during pregnancy.

The Heart Rhythm Society affirmed the value on 8 June 2017.

This consensus document developed by the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Group on Thrombosis, with representation from the ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease, Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), South African Heart Association (SA Heart), and SOLAECE, addresses management of patients with atrial fibrillation and associated valvular heart disease (VHD), with up-to-date consensus recommendations for clinical practice for different forms of VHD.

December 13, 2005 — This is the first study designed to look at the relation between patient outcomes and physicians'/hospitals' volume of cardioverter-defibrillator implantation to determine whether implantation should be limited to physicians with high procedural volume.