2001 ACC/AHA/ESC Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
October 1, 2001—Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained rhythm disturbance. AF is often associated with structural heart disease, but a substantial proportion of patients with AF have no detectable heart disease. Hemodynamic impairment and thromboembolic events related to AF result in significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. The goal of this document is to provide guidance for better management of this frequent and complex arrhythmia. The document was approved by the governing bodies of the ACC, AHA, and ESC and officially endorsed by NASPE.